Process Instrumentation

Neal Systems can provide solutions for various process measurements for general purpose and hazardous areas.

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See our Top FAQs for Process Instrumentation


With a 100-year tradition of excellence and innovation in flow measurement, the Foxboro brand of magnetic, vortex, and Coriolis technologies offers a complete breadth of accurate, reliable, and worry-free flow meter solutions.


The Foxboro Difference

Magnetic flowmeters are designed to fit a wide range of applications, including water, slurries, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and foodstuffs, in a wide range of industries. Foxboro magnetic meters are a reliable flow measurement solution with a lower cost of ownership and maintenance, with field-proven stability to maximize the availability of flow measurement.

Key Benefits

  • Wide range of ability while maintaining high accuracy
  • Simple startup and operation
  • Flexibility


The Foxboro Difference

Foxboro vortex flowmeters are the highest-performing flowmeters on the market. These instruments are designed to be flexible and reliable in harsh process environments. No other vortex flowmeter measures up for accuracy in liquid, gas and steam for temperatures up to 800ºF (430ºC).

Key Benefits

  • Unique vortex sensing with a lifetime warranty, including the option for a removable sensor without shutting down the process
  • Patented algorithms to improve performance in real-world applications
  • Broad offering in terms of sizes, materials and end connections, including models that are 3A approved for sanitary applications
  • Widest flow range available today
  • Ease of configuration using FDT technology


The Foxboro Difference

Foxboro Coriolis flow transmitters handle measurements that cause other Coriolis meters to fail. They overcome problems associated with entrained gases, empty tube conditions, or flash-prone fluids and fully realize the promise of Coriolis measurement to achieve high accuracy, eliminate downtime, avoid workarounds, and keep profits flowing.

Key Benefits

  • Highly accurate mass, density and temperature measurement
  • Unprecedented, precise liquid/gas flow measurement without skips or stalls
  • Fast startup – up to 10 times faster than conventional Coriolis meters
  • Highly accurate batches, starting from empty tube


The Foxboro Difference

Foxboro provides an orifice assembly to meet your process requirements by offering both compact and integral flow orifice assemblies.

The compact orifice is a wafer body orifice plate that includes an integral three-valve manifold. This one-piece unit mounts directly to a differential pressure transmitter. An alignment ring and optional installation kit provide the hardware necessary to properly install the orifice in various pipeline sizes having ANSI® or DIN flanges.

The Integral Flow Orifice Assemblies (IFOA) adapt electronic and/or pneumatic d/p cell transmitters for measuring small flow rates.

Key Benefits

Compact Orifice:

  • Suitable for use in liquid, gas or steam services
  • Rugged, integral construction
  • Compact Orifice and calibrated transmitter are factory assembled


  • Very high accuracy when equipped with associated piping
  • Process-wetted materials are available for use with both corrosive and noncorrosive fluids

Foxboro Orifice AssemblyFoxboro IFOA Assembly



Foxboro pressure instrumentation offers pressure transmitters, transducers, and related devices that are used across the process automation industry including oil & gas, pharmaceutical, power, chemical, pulp & paper, metals & mining, water & wastewater, and many others.

Foxboro Pressure Instrument
Foxboro’s Absolute, Gauge, & Differential Pressure Transmitters

  • IAP10 / IGP10 / IDP10
  • IAP10S / IGP10S / IDP10S
  • IDP15
  • IAP20 / GP20
  • IGP25 / IDP25
  • IDP31
  • IDP32
  • IGP50
  • IGP60
Foxboro Pressure Instrument


Spectre Corporation is a manufacturer of premium performance pressure transducers. Their products are commonly used in applications for industrial OEMs, fluid power, hydraulic systems, fuel cells, medical gases, HVAC/R, water management, oil and gas exploration, aerospace, scientific research, aircraft ground support and military.

general purpose transducer



Foxboro Eckardt offers best-in-class level transmitters with continuous self-diagnostics. By eliminating all moving parts in their design, there is little or no maintenance required, further improving longevity and reliability.

level transmitters
244LD LevelStar
Intelligent Buoyancy Transmitter with Torque Tube for Liquid Level, Interface & Density
level transmitters
Intelligent Buoyancy Transmitter for Liquid Level, Interface & Density
level transmitters
Gauge Pressure Transmitter for Measurement of Absolute Pressure


L&J Technologies is an innovative and high technology supplier of cost-effective, highly accurate, and quality precision tank level gauging and tank fitting equipment, control systems, and related products.


L&J Technologies instrumentation is designed to provide cost saving accessibility and enhanced safety across your tank farm.

radar gauge

The MCG 1500SFI from L&J Technologies measures temperature, pressure, and density with the highest accuracy available in servo technology, offering high reliability through brushless design using just three moving parts.

servo gauge

L&J has been an industry leader in level gauging solutions for over 35 years. Using the most advanced features on the market, L&J provides cost-effective, highly precise, and innovative gauging products.

magnetorestrictive tank level gauges


KPSI provides reliable and accurate level transducers for a variety of applications. The new line of powered data logging transducers offers new levels of flexibility, and the remote monitoring system makes water levels accessible online.

pressure sensor kpsi



Foxboro offers a full range of temperature and instrumentation products:

RTDs & Thermocouple Sensors – Select from a wide variety of RTD and thermocouple sensors for compatibility with nearly all RTD and thermocouple sensor curves.

Transmitters – Providing highly reliable, stable and accurate temperature measurements for the most demanding temperature applications in the process industry.

Thermowells – Available factory-installed to minimize field assembly labor and ensure compliance with explosion-proof and flameproof electrical safety certification.

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Foxboro Temperature Products
Foxboro Temperature Products


Process Sensors’ pyrometers and thermal imaging cameras accurately measure temperature from a distance. From basic to highly customized and advanced technology, you will be impressed by what Process Sensors can offer for your temperature application.

Sensorsbsc cs laserthermal imaging camerapyrometerinfrared sensors


L&J Technologies’ MCG 350 Averaging Temperature Probe (ATP) represents state-of-the-art temperature measurement and is accepted worldwide to use as a standard for custody transfer inventory and corrected volumes.

temperature probe

Liquid Analytical


Foxboro liquid analytical instruments are used in a wide range of industries such as chemicals, food and beverage, pulp and paper, metals, semiconductor, power generation, water and waste, and many others.

Foxboro Liquid Analytical ProductsFoxboro Liquid Analytical ProductsFoxboro Liquid Analytical ProductsFoxboro Liquid Analytical Products

Pneumatic Instruments

Foxboro has a long history of manufacturing a broad range of dependable pneumatic instruments, including transmitters, large case and panel-mounted instruments for recording and controlling, current to pneumatic converters, and many more. The Foxboro line encompasses a variety of measurement types:

  • Flow Measurement
  • Temperature Measurement
  • Pressure Measurement
  • Liquid Level Measurement
  • Other Applications

For more information:

Top FAQs

Q: What are the advantages and benefits of using two-color sensors?

Two-color or ratio pyrometers measure temperatures from the ratio of radiation signals of two adjacent wavelengths as opposed to measuring the absolute intensity within one wavelength, as with one-color pyrometers. Two-color pyrometers offer these advantages:

  • Automatic compensation for viewing through dirty windows, dust and partial smoke between sensor and target.
  • Compensation for changes in target emissivity i.e. gray bodies – targets with the same emissivity on both wavelengths.
  • Measures smaller target than sensor’s field of view (FOV/Spot Size) i.e. measures weighted peak temperature within FOV.
  • Unaffected by moving targets within FOV.
Q: Am I restricted to using only two color measurements on the Process Sensor line?

No, the Process Sensors PSC-SR56N Series two-color pyrometer line can also be used as single wavelength pyrometers.

Q: What are the differences between a thermocouple and an RTD?

The most notable difference between a thermocouple and an RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) is the principle of operation. A thermocouple operates on the principle that two dissimilar metals joined together will produce a voltage related to a temperature difference. An RTD operates on the principle that electrical resistance of certain metals changes in a predictable way depending on the rise or fall in temperature.

Advantages of the thermocouple include a wide temperature measuring range (depending on the thermocouple type, the range can be as much as from -300° F. to 2300° F.), fast response time (under a second in some cases), low initial cost, and durability. Overall, thermocouples are able to withstand rugged applications.

Advantages for RTDs include stable output over a long period of time, ease of recalibration, and accurate readings over narrow temperature spans. RTD disadvantages, when compared to the thermocouples, are smaller overall temperature range (-330°F to 930° F) and higher initial cost; they are also more fragile in rugged, industrial environments.

Q: What are important issues in selecting sensors for process control?

The major issues in sensor selection are summarized below. The relative importance of each issue depends upon the specific application. For example, one application might require excellent accuracy, while another might require only moderate accuracy, but high reliability. Generally, the greater the requirements for good performance, the higher the cost for purchase and maintenance. Therefore, it is important to find the proper balance of performance and cost rather than always specifying the best performing sensor.

  • Accuracy – Accuracy is the degree of conformity of the measured value with the accepted standard or ideal value, which can be taken as the true physical variable. Accuracy is usually reported as a range of maximum inaccuracy. These ranges should have a significance level, such as 95% of the measurements will be within the accuracy range. Accuracy is needed for some variables, such as product quality, but it is not required for others such as level in a large storage tank. Accuracy is usually expressed in engineering units or as a percentage of the sensor range, for example, a thermocouple temperature sensor with accuracy of ± 1.5 K.
  • Repeatability – The closeness of agreement among a number of consecutive measurements of the same variable (value) under the same operating conditions, approaching in the same direction.
  • Reproducibility – The closeness of agreement among a number of consecutive measurements of the same variable (value) under the same operating conditions over a period of time, approaching from both directions. This is usually expressed as non-reproducibility as a percentage of range (span). Often, an important balance is between accuracy and reproducibility, with the proper choice depending on each process application. The period of time is “long” so that changes occurring over longer times of plant operation are included. Reproducibility includes hysteresis, dead band, drift, and repeatability.
  • Range/Span – Most sensors have a limited range over which a process variable can be measured, defined by the lower and upper range values. A good rule of thumb is that the larger the range, the poorer the accuracy and reproducibility. Engineers should therefore select the smallest range that satisfies the process requirements. For example, if a chemical reactor typically operates at 300° C., the engineer might select a range of 250-350° C. Ranges should be selected that are easily interpreted by operating personnel, such as 100-200° C rather than 100-183° C.
  • Reliability – Reliability is the probability that a device will adequately perform (as specified) for a period of time under specified operating conditions. Some sensors are required for safety or product quality, and they therefore should be very reliable. Reliability is affected by maintenance and consistency with the process environment. Also, some sensors are protected from contact with corrosive process environment by a cover or sheath (e.g., a thermowell for a thermocouple), and some sensors require a sample to be extracted from the process (e.g., a chromatograph). If sensor reliability is very important, the engineer can provide duplicate sensors, so that a single failure does not require a process shutdown.
  • Linearity – This is the closeness to a straight line of the relationship between the true process variable and the measurement. Lack of linearity does not necessarily degrade sensor performance. If the nonlinearity can be modeled and an appropriate correction applied to the measurement before it is used for monitoring and control, the effect of the non-linearity can be eliminated. Typical examples of compensating calculations are the square root applied to the orifice flow sensor and the polynomial compensation for a thermocouple temperature sensor. The engineer should not assume that a compensation for non-linearity has been applied, especially when taking values from a history database that does not contain details of the measurement technology. Linearity is usually reported as non-linearity, which is the maximum of the deviation between the calibration curve and a straight line positioned so that the maximum deviation is minimized.
  • Maintenance – Sensors require occasional testing and replacement of selected components that can wear. Engineers must know the maintenance requirements so that they can provide adequate spare parts and personnel time. Naturally, the maintenance costs must be included in the economic analysis of a design. The cost associated with maintenance can be substantial and should not be overlooked in the economic analysis. On-stream analyzers usually require the most maintenance.
  • Consistency with Process Environment – Most sensors will function properly for specific process conditions. For example, many flow sensors function for a single phase, but not for multi-phase fluid flow, whether vapor-liquid or slurry. The engineer must observe the limitations for each sensor. Some sensors can have direct contact with the process materials, while others must be protected. Three general categories are given in the following.
  • Direct Contact – Sensors such as orifice plates and level floats have direct contact with process fluids.
  • Sheath protection – Sensors such as thermocouples and pressure diaphragms have a sheath between the process fluid and the sensor element.
  • Sample Extraction – When the process environment is very hostile or the sensor is delicate and performs a complex physiochemical transformation on the process material, a sample can be extracted.

Examples where consistency with the environment is an important consideration are:

  • A float can indicate the interface for a liquid level. However, a float is not reliable for a “sticky” liquid.
  • A turbine flow meter can be damaged by a rapid change in flow rate or liquid entrained in a vapor stream.
  • Sensors in direct contact must not be degraded by the process material.
  • A sheath usually slows the sensor response.
  • Samples must represent the fluid in the process.
  • The parts of the sensor that contact the process must be selected appropriately to resist corrosion or other deleterious effects.
  • Dynamics – The use of the sensor dictates the allowable delay in the sensor response. When the measured value is used for control, sensor delays should be minimized, while sensors used for monitoring longer-term trends can have some delay. A greater delay is associated with sensors that require a sample to be extracted from the process. On-stream analyzers usually have the longest delays, which are caused by the time for analysis.
  • Safety – The sensor and transmitter often require electrical power. Since the sensor is located at the process equipment, the environment could contain flammable gases, which could explode when a spark occurs. Standards for safety have been developed to prevent such explosions. These standards prevent a significant power source, oxidizing agent, and flammable gas from being in contact together.
  • Cost – Engineers must always consider cost when making design and operations decisions. Sensors involve costs and, when selected properly, provide benefits. These must be quantified and a profitability analysis performed. In some cases, a sensor can affect the operating costs of the process. An example is a flow sensor. In some situations, the pumping (or compression) costs can be high, and the pressure drop occurring because of the sensor can significantly increase the pumping costs. In such situations, a flow sensor with a low (non-recoverable) pressure drop is selected. Remember that the total cost includes costs of transmission (wiring around the plant), installation, documentation, plant operations, and maintenance over the life of the sensor.
Q: What is the proper sensor location for various situations?

In the following situations, use the listed location for the sensor(s):

  • Orifice sensor used for flow control of the plant feed rate – Centralized control room
  • Float sensor used for a high level alarm in a reflux drum – Centralized control room
  • Thermocouple sensor used to monitor the temperatures in a fired heater to prevent damage to the equipment – Centralized control room
  • Pressure sensor used for the startup of a compressor – Local control panel and centralized control room
  • Pressure sensor used to monitor piping for possible plugging – Local display (unless the plugging could occur rapidly, in which case the display should be in the centralized control room)
Q: What are important issues to consider in regard to signal transmission?

Signal transmission is an integral part of every feedback control loop. Proper process control requires that signals be transmitted between loop elements reliably, rapidly, and accurately. The relative importance of each issue below depends on the specific application. For example, fast response is required for controlling a mechanical system with rapid process dynamics, while high reliability is required for a safety or other critical application. The following list is restricted to applications of signal transmission for automatic control in the process industries.

    • Accuracy and Reproducibility – The signal transmission should be more accurate than the sensor and final element so that no degradation results from the transmission. Here, accuracy can be taken to mean a difference in the signal value from its exact value. Recall that the transmission occurs in the feedback loop, so that inaccuracy will affect the performance of feedback control. Field calibration must be possible without removing the equipment or compromising the safety protection.
    • Noise Sensitivity – The signal can be influenced by “noise” including electrical signals from other devices. The system must be designed to reduce the effects of noise.
    • Reliability – The failure of a signal transmission results in the loss of feedback control. For safety-critical signals, a backup (parallel) transmission path may be required. Because the equipment may be located outdoors, it must be physically rugged and resistant to water and significant changes in temperature. In a typical loop, the elements are connected in series. The reliability of a series of elements is the product of the reliability of each element. The power supplies are important potential sources of failures that can affect many signals simultaneously.
    • Dynamics – Signal transmission is part of the feedback loop, and any delays degrade control. The transmission should be much faster than other elements in the loop. Transmission by electronic analog or digital signal is much faster than the dynamics of a typical process element.
    • Distance – In large plants, signals can be transmitted several thousand meters. Physical connections have distance limitations. For very long distances, telemetry is used; however, reliability is sacrificed, so that this method is normally restricted to monitoring with control implemented locally.
    • Interoperability – It may be necessary to use elements manufactured by different suppliers within the same control loop. To achieve this interoperability, international standards must exist for the signals being transmitted between elements (i.e., sensors, controllers, and valves). Standards are easily achieved for analog signals, 4-20 mA (electronic) and 3-15psig (pneumatic). At the present time, several competing standards exist for digital transmission.
    • Safety – Naturally, the signal must not compromise the safe operation of the system. Since power is used for the transmission, special considerations are required to prevent combustion or explosion. The power supplied must be low or a dangerous event must be contained within a controlled environment (enclosure). In addition, a high voltage or current caused by a circuit fault must not be transmitted to a process area where a fuel is present.
    • Diagnostics and Configuration – Ideally, the signal should be able to communicate several values, for example, providing:
      • Confirmation that the signal is being transmitted (live zero);
      • Confirmation that the signal was received (echo); and/or
      • Configuration values required for sensors and final elements (e.g., sensor zero and span values).

More limited (analog) systems could provide many independent signals for every variable. However, this approach would be very costly because a separate cable would be required for each signal and is not used in practice. Digital transmission can communicate many values related to each variable (e.g., process measurement).

  • Cost – Typically, several transmission methods will satisfy basic requirements so that benefits and costs must be evaluated to determine the best choice. Remember that the total cost includes costs of installation, documentation, plant operations, and maintenance over the life of the sensor